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|Title:||The parasitoid Gonatopus bartletti reduces presence of plant-pathogenic Spiroplasma kunkelii within the leafhopper vector Dalbulus maidis|
|Abstract:||Homopteran vectors (e.g., leafhoppers) of plant pathogens are vessels for reproduction of cell wall-free bacteria. These vectors also serve as hosts for larval parasitoid dipterans, hymenopterans, and strepsipterans. However, no study has explored the relationship among these wall-free bacteria and parasitoid larvae within the insect host. We studied the corn stunt spiroplasma (CSS), Spiroplasma kunkelii Whitcomb (Mycoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae), a bacterium that originated from secondary symbionts that cause corn stunt disease in maize, Zea mays L., and its reproduction in the haemolymph of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). We also studied the dryinid parasitoid Gonatopus bartletti Olmi (Hymenoptera: Dryinidae), the larva of which feeds in the corn leafhopper haemolymph. Our results showed that when CSS and the wasp coexisted in D. maidis, the development of the parasitoid was not affected by S. kunkelii. Parasitoid development was successfully completed when leafhoppers acquired S. kunkelii before or after parasitism and when CSS had median (10 days) and long (20 days) incubation periods in the leafhopper before parasitization. The presence of S. kunkelii did not affect parasitoid development to the adult stage. However, polymerase chain reaction showed that the presence (survival) of S. kunkelii in the leafhopper was negatively affected by the parasitoid larva. Fewer leafhoppers had CSS before and after parasitization compared with leafhoppers that only acquired the CSS. This negative effect helps to explain the high parasitism rate by G. bartletti in D. maidis and the low presence of S. kunkelii in the corn leafhopper when CSS and the wasp parasitoid overlap throughout their geographic distribution. The parasitoid larva may negatively affect S. kunkelii by (1) producing antibacterial peptides that are toxic to CSS; (2) producing teratocytes that take nutrients from the host for larval development, but these nutrients are required by CSS; (3) affecting, indirectly, CSS through other symbiotic microorganisms; and (4) producing proteins with antibacterial activity that are present in the venom of the wasp parasitoid. © 2006 The Netherlands Entomological Society.|
|Appears in Collections:||Producción científica UdeG (prueba)|
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