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Title: Neuropsychological function in nondemented carriers of presenilin-1 mutations
Author: Ringman, J.M.
Diaz-Olavarrieta, C.
Rodriguez, Y.
Chavez, M.
Fairbanks, L.
Paz, F.
Varpetian, A.
Maldonado, H.C.
Macias-Islas, M.A.
Murrell, J.
Ghetti, B.
Kawas, C.
Issue Date: 2005
Abstract: Background: Prospective and case-control studies have demonstrated that memory loss and executive dysfunction occur early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Objective: To investigate these observations by the study of persons at risk for autosomal dominant forms of AD. Methods: Neuropsychological and genetic tests were performed on 51 nondemented at-risk members of 10 Mexican families with two distinct presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations. Test scores were compared between PS1 mutation carriers (MCs; n = 30) and noncarriers (NCs; n = 21) by analyses of variance, co-varying for family and specific mutation. Regression analyses were performed, taking into account age relative to the median age at dementia diagnosis in the family (adjusted age), gender, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores, education, and number of APOE ε4 alleles. Subjects were divided into age tertiles and scores compared within these groups. Composite scores for Verbal Memory, Executive Function/Working Memory, Language, and Visuospatial Function were created, and these scores compared between MCs and NCs. Results: MCs performed worse than NCs on the Mini-Mental State Examination, Trails Making Tests A and B, Delayed Recall of a 10-Word List, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS Block Design. In multiple linear regression analyses, BDI score, gender, and number of APOE ε4 alleles did not consistently affect test scores. The differences seen between MCs and NCs were due to differences in the oldest tertile. MCs had lower Visuospatial and Executive Function/Working Memory but not Verbal Memory or Language composite scores. Conclusions: This study is consistent with findings in sporadic Alzheimer disease of early problems with memory, Visuospatial function, and particularly with executive function in PSl mutation carriers. Depression, gender, and presence of an APOE ε4 allele did not demonstrate large influences on neuropsychological performance. Copyright © 2005 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.
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