Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: The effects of non-uniformities and frequency dependence of line parameters on electromagnetic surge propagation
Author: Reyes-Castillo, Z.
Pereira-Suarez, A.L.
Palafox-Sanchez, C.A.
Rangel-Villalobos, H.
Estrada-Chavez, C.
Oregon-Romero, E.
Angel-Chavez, L.I.
Munoz-Barrios, S.
Bueno-Topete, M.R.
Munoz-Valle, J.F.
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is a hormone-cytokine that has been involved in autoimmunity due to its immunoregulatory and lymphoproliferative effects. It is produced by various extrapituitary sites including immune cells, under control of a superdistal promoter that contains a single nucleotide polymorphism - 1149 G/T previously associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility in European population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the extrapituitary PRL - 1149 G/T promoter polymorphism with clinical parameters, clinical activity and disability indices in RA patients from Western Mexico and to analyze the PRL mRNA expression according to the PRL - 1149 G/T promoter polymorphism in total leucocytes from RA patients and controls. We conducted a case-control study that included 258 RA patients and 333 control subjects (CS). The DNA samples were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP method and the PRL mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time PCR. PRL serum levels and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) were measured with ELISA. We found significant differences in the genotype (p = 0.022) and allelic (p = 0.046) distribution of the polymorphism between RA patients and control subjects. According to the dominant genetic model, there is an association between the T allele (GT. +. TT genotypes) and decreased RA susceptibility in comparison to the G allele carriers (GG genotype) (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.92; p = 0.011). The T allele carriers (GT. +. TT genotypes) had lower titers of anti-CCP antibodies in comparison to the G allele carriers (GG genotype) (median, 66. U/mL vs. 125. U/mL; p = 0.03). Furthermore, the GG homozygotes had higher PRL mRNA expression in comparison to the GT heterozygotes, and this latter with respect to the TT homozygotes, in both groups (RA: 1 > 0.72 > 0.19; CS: 1 > 0.54. > 0.28). However, PRL serum levels were similar in both groups. Our results suggest that the PRL - 1149 T allele is a genetic marker for decreased RA susceptibility and is associated with lower titers of anti-CCP antibodies in Mexican population. We also suggest influence of genotype upon PRL mRNA expression. " 2013 Elsevier B.V.",,,,,,"10.1016/j.gene.2013.04.068",,,"","",,,,,,"1",,"Gene",,"130
MEDLINE",,,,"Index Medicus;Adult;Alleles;Arthritis, Rheumatoid/ge [Genetics];Arthritis, Rheumatoid/im [Immunology];Autoantibodies/ge [Genetics];Autoantibodies/im [Immunology];Case-Control Studies;Female;Genetic Predisposition to Disease;Genotype;Homozygote;Humans;Male;Mexican Americans/ge [Genetics];Mexico;Middle Aged;Peptides, Cyclic/im [Immunology];Polymorphism, Genetic;Prolactin/ge [Genetics];Promoter Regions, Genetic;RNA, Messenger/ge [Genetics]",,"Anti-CCP antibodies; PRL gene; Rheumatoid arthritis; Single nucleotide polymorphism",,,,,,"The extrapituitary prolactin promoter polymorphism is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and anti-CCP antibodies in Mexican population",,"Article" "46885","123456789/35008",,"Dávila, M., Univeridad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela, Facultad de Ingeniería, Escuela de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad de Los Andes, Avenida Tulio Febres Cordero, Merida, 5101, Venezuela; Naredo, J.L., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios, A.P. 31-438, Plaza la Luna, Jalisco, 44550, México, Mexico; Moreno, P., Centro de Investigación y de Estudios, A.P. 31-438, Plaza la Luna, Jalisco, 44550, México, Mexico; Gutiérrez, J.A., Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, Mexico",,"Davila, M.
Naredo, J.L.
Moreno, P.
Gutierrez, J.A.",,"2006",,"This paper describes a new transmission line model for electromagnetic transient analysis in time domain which accounts for non-uniform and frequency dependence effects. This model is based on the Radulet approach to line equations and on finite differences in characteristic coordinates. The model is validated by comparisons with study cases reported in the specialized literature, as well as with the EMTP/ATP and the numerical laplace transform. " 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Appears in Collections:Producción científica UdeG

Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.

Items in RIUdeG are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.