Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12104/45116
Title: The first fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: Characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar
Author: Cristiano, E.
Rojas, J.I.
Romano, M.
Frider, N.
MacHnicki, G.
Giunta, D.H.
Calegaro, D.
Corona, T.
Flores, J.
Gracia, F.
MacIas-Islas, M.
Correale, J.
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: The incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) varies geographically as shown through extensive epidemiological studies performed mainly in developed countries. Nonetheless, scant data is available in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The objective of this review is to assess epidemiological data of MS in LAC. We conducted a systematic review of published articles and gray literature from January 1995 to May 2011. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Incidence data were found in only three studies and ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 annual cases per 100,000 person-years. Prevalence was reported in 10 studies and ranged from 0.83 to 21.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The most prevalent subtype of MS was the relapsing-remitting form (48% to 91% of the series). No data about mortality were found. This study showed low frequency for MS in LAC compared with North American and European countries. The role of environmental and genetic factors should be well studied, providing new insights about its etiology. " The Author(s) 2012.",,,,,,"10.1177/1352458512462918",,,"http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12104/45116","http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84878354392&partnerID=40&md5=3e7b9087ef40512ac0fb13cdabe2ace7",,,,,,"7",,"Multiple Sclerosis",,"844
854",,"19",,"Scopus
WOS",,,,,,"epidemiology; incidence; Latin America; Multiple sclerosis; prevalence",,,,,,"The epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Latin America and the Caribbean: A systematic review",,"Review" "46902","123456789/35008",,"Abdo, A.A., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001, United States; Ackermann, M., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Ajello, M., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Antolini, E., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Baldini, L., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Ballet, J., Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/University Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France; Barbiellini, G., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy; Bastieri, D., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universit di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy; Bechtol, K., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Bellazzini, R., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Berenji, B., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Blandford, R.D., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Bonamente, E., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Borgland, A.W., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Bregeon, J., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Brez, A., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Brigida, M., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Bruel, P., Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau, France; Buehler, R., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Buson, S., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universit di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy; Caliandro, G.A., Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Barcelona 08193, Spain; Cameron, R.A., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Cannon, A., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; Caraveo, P.A., INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano, Italy; Carrigan, S., Dipartimento di Fisica G. Galilei, Universit di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy; Casandjian, J.M., Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/University Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France; Cecchi, C., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; lik, ., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States, Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States, Department of Physics and Center for Space Sciences and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, United States; Charles, E., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Chekhtman, A., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States; Cheung, C.C., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001, United States; Chiang, J., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Ciprini, S., Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Claus, R., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Cohen-Tanugi, J., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Conrad, J., Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Costamante, L., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Cutini, S., Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy; Dermer, C.D., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States; De Palma, F., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Donato, D., Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States; Do Couto E Silva, E., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Drell, P.S., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Dubois, R., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Escande, L., Centre d'Tudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, University Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, 33175 Gradignan, France; Favuzzi, C., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Fegan, S.J., Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau, France; Finke, J., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001, United States; Focke, W.B., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Fortin, P., Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau, France; Frailis, M., Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Udine, Gruppo Collegato di Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, I-34143 Trieste, Italy; Fukazawa, Y., Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Funk, S., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Fusco, P., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Gargano, F., Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy; Gasparrini, D., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States; Gehrels, N., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Germani, S., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Giglietto, N., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Giordano, F., INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, 40129 Bologna, Italy; Giroletti, M., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Glanzman, T., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Godfrey, G., Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/University Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France; Grenier, I.A., Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, United States; Guiriec, S., Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Barcelona 08193, Spain; Hadasch, D., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Hayashida, M., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States; Hays, E., Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States; Hughes, R.E., Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Itoh, R., Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland; Johannesson, G., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Johnson, A.S., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States; Johnson, W.N., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Kamae, T., Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Katagiri, H., Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan; Kataoka, J., Centre d'Tude Spatiale des Rayonnements, CNRS/UPS, BP 44346, F-30128 Toulouse Cedex 4, France; Knodlseder, J., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Kuss, M., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Lande, J., Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Larsson, S., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Latronico, L., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Lee, S.-H., Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden, Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Garde, M.L., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy; Longo, F., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Loparco, F., Centre d'Tudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, University Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, 33175 Gradignan, France; Lott, B., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States; Lovellette, M.N., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Lubrano, P., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States; Makeev, A., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Mazziotta, M.N., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States; McEnery, J.E., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Mehault, J., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Michelson, P.F., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Mizuno, T., Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Monte, C., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Monzani, M.E., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Morselli, A., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy; Moskalenko, I.V., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Murgia, S., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Nakamori, T., Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan; Naumann-Godo, M., Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/University Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France; Nishino, S., Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Nolan, P.L., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Norris, J.P., Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, United States; Nuss, E., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Ohsugi, T., Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Okumura, A., Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan; Omodei, N., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Orlando, E., Max-Planck Institut for Extraterrestrische Physik, 85748 Garching, Germany; Ormes, J.F., Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, United States; Ozaki, M., Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510, Japan; Paneque, D., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Panetta, J.H., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Parent, D., Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, United States, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, United States; Pelassa, V., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Pepe, M., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit Degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Pesce-Rollins, M., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Piron, F., Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, University Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier, France; Porter, T.A., Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States; Raine, S., Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell'Universit e Del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari 70126, Italy; Rando, R., Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy, Dipartimento di Fisica G. 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Ackermann, M.
Ajello, M.
Antolini, E.
Baldini, L.
Ballet, J.
Barbiellini, G.
Bastieri, D.
Bechtol, K.
Bellazzini, R.
Berenji, B.
Blandford, R.D.
Bonamente, E.
Borgland, A.W.
Bregeon, J.
Brez, A.
Brigida, M.
Bruel, P.
Buehler, R.
Buson, S.
Caliandro, G.A.
Cameron, R.A.
Cannon, A.
Caraveo, P.A.
Carrigan, S.
Casandjian, J.M.
Cecchi, C.
Clik, O.",,"2011",,"We report on observations of BLLacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BLLac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsíhovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BLLac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition. " 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12104/45123
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