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Title: Study of the pathways involved in apoptosis induced by PI3K inhibition in cerebellar granule neurons
Author: Torre, A.V.D.L.
Junyent, F.
Folch, J.
Pelegri, C.
Vilaplana, J.
Auladell, C.
Beas-Zárate, Carlos
Palls, M.
Camins, A.
Verdaguer, E.
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: In the present study we focused in the PI3K/Akt pathway which plays a key role in neuronal survival. Here we show that inhibition of PI3K/Akt by means of LY294002 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent and calpain-independent pathway in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). This finding was confirmed using zVAD-fmk, a widely caspase inhibitor that prevents apoptosis. For this purpose, we compared two models of apoptosis in CGNs, namely inhibition of PI3K/Akt, and serum potassium deprivation (S/K deprivation). In contrast to the S/K deprivation model, caspase-3 was not activated when PI3K is inhibited. Likewise, CDK5 activation was not involved in this apoptotic process, because calpain activation is responsible for the formation of CDK5/p25 neurotoxic form. However, S/K deprivation activated calpain, as it is shown by ?-spectrin breakdown, and favoured the formation of CDK5/p25. Moreover, although PI3K/Akt inhibition enhanced pRbser780 phosphorylation, no increase in the expression of cell-cycle proteins, namely: cyclin D, cyclin E, CDK2 or CDK4, was detected. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assay did not shown any increase in DNA synthesis. Likewise, PI3K/Akt inhibition increased GSK3? activity and c-Jun phosphorylation, which implicates these two pathways in this apoptotic route. Although previous reports suggest that apoptosis induced in CGNs by LY294002 and S/K deprivation causes PI3K inhibition and increases GSK3? activity and c-Jun phosphorylation activation, our results demonstrate substantial differences between them and point to a key role of GSK3? in the apoptosis induced in CGNs in the two models tested. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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