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Title: Courtship Behavior of the Corn Leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
Author: Gonzalez-Castaneda, R.E.
Sanchez-Gonzalez, V.J.
Flores-Soto, M.
Vazquez-Camacho, G.
Macias-Islas, M.A.
Ortiz, G.G.
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: Decreased Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) brain level is one of the main biochemical disorders in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In rodents, recent data show that the CHAT gene can be regulated by a neural restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the gene and protein expression of CHAT and NRSF in frontal, temporal, entorhinal and parietal cortices of AD patient brains. Four brains from patients with AD and four brains from subjects without dementia were studied. Cerebral tissues were obtained and processed by the guanidine isothiocyanate method for RNA extraction. CHAT and NRSF gene and protein expression were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. CHAT gene expression levels were 39% lower in AD patients as compared to the control group (p < 0.05, U test). ChAT protein levels were reduced by 17% (p = 0.02, U test). NRSF gene expression levels were 86% higher in the AD group (p = 0.001, U test) as compared to the control group. In the AD subjects, the NRSF protein levels were 57% higher (p > 0.05, U test) than in the control subjects. These findings suggest for the first time that in the brain of AD patients high NRSF protein levels are related to low CHAT gene expression levels. " 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Printed in Brazil.",,,,,,,,,"","",,,,,,"1",,"Genetics and Molecular Biology",,"28
ScIELO",,,,"Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Genetics & Heredity",,"Alzheimer's disease; Brain; Choline acetyltransferase; Neural restrictive silencer factor; Protein expression",,"Neurología",,,,"Neural restrictive silencer factor and choline acetyltransferase expression in cerebral tissue of Alzheimer's disease patients: A pilot study",,"Article" "42188","123456789/35008",,"Ramirez-Romero, R., Departamento de Producción agrícola, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 139Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico; Perez-Ascencio, D., Departamento de Producción agrícola, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 139Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico; Garibay-Benítez, D., Departamento de Producción agrícola, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apartado Postal 139Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico",,"Ramirez-Romero, R.
Perez-Ascencio, D.
Garibay-Benitez, D.",,"2014",,"Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is one of the most important pathogen vectors on maize, but its courtship behavior has never been documented. In the present study, we recorded length of courtship and mating periods and behavioral transitions for D. maidis. According to these observations, we built ethograms for both sexes to create a comprehensive description of their courtship behavior. The mean courtship duration was 110.04 ( 66.84) min and the mean mating period was 51.61 ( 19.75) min. Both sexes showed similar, stereotyped behavioral transitions. However, females exhibited a lower frequency of several behavioral transitions and behaviors compared with males. Before mating, females were more frequently resting or performing an abdomen movement. Less frequently, they were walking or flapping the wings (wing fanning). Meanwhile, males exhibited three main behaviors before mating; the most frequent was wing fanning, followed by walking and approaching. However, during courtship, rapprochement between individuals of both sexes was not common so it is deduced that physical contact is not essential. In this regard, we discuss possible acoustic and chemical communication during the courtship process of D. maidis. " 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
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