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Title: Incidental consequences of antihelmintic treatment in the central nervous system
Author: Ramos-Zuniga, R.
Perez-Gomez, H.R.
Jauregui-Huerta, F.
Del Sol Lopez-Hernandez, M.
Valera-Lizarraga, J.E.
Paz-Velez, G.
Becerra-Valdivia, A.
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic infection in the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired neurological symptoms in young adults living in developing countries. Many "asymptomatic" patients begin experiencing neurological symptoms after the use of antiparasitic drugs for gastrointestinal treatment. Patients who are previously diagnosed with NCC require special care during cysticidal treatment because of the inflammatory effects caused by the interaction between the drug, the parasite, and the host. Case Description: Of a series of 46 cases, we selected five patients with a history of being "asymptomatic" and who began experiencing neurologic symptoms after the use of albendazole, which led to a diagnosis of cysticercosis. Another case of the patient, who already had been diagnosed of ventricular cysticercosis, was given a drug treatment without consulting the neurosurgeon and had a fatal outcome attributable to secondary meningoencephalitis. Results: In the first five cases, with new neurological symptoms after antihelmintic treatment, the self-prescription is remarkable. The symptoms appear between the third and fifth day of treatment. All of them had a clinical course without complications. Only two cases minimally invasive techniques were required. The case who had been already diagnosed developed meningoencephalitis and died after eight days of antihelmintic treatment. Conclusions: Anthelminthic drug treatment requires tailor-based prescription considering risk-benefit ratio with the drug-parasite-host interaction in mind. Treatment is not harmless so patients have to be closely watched. In select cases, medical treatment cannot replace surgical procedures, which can be the primary approach with drug treatment as a complement. � 2013 Elsevier Inc.
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