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Title: Geographical indications, terroir, and socioeconomic and ecological sustainability: The case of tequila
Author: Castro-Felix, P.
Perez de la Rosa, J.A.
Amado, G.V.
Magana, S.V.
Santerre, A.
Lopez-Dellamary Toral, F.
Villalobos-Arambula, A.R.
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: Genetic relationships among Mexican white pines have not been completely resolved by DNA sequencing analyses. The use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for the study of interspecific relationships has been questioned because of the possible lack of homology of co-migrating bands between species. However, several RAPD based studies on pines have provided sufficient information to discriminate between closely related taxa. Genetic relationships among four species of Mexican white pines (Pinus ayacahuite, Pinus strobiformis, Pinus lambertiana and Pinus chiapensis) were estimated based on RAPD markers. Sixty-nine primers generated 247 bands in pooled DNA samples from ten populations. In addition, four selected primers generated 27 bands in 176 individual DNA samples. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) dendrograms based on Jaccard similarity indices were constructed. The results suggest that the closest pine species analyzed were P. ayacahuite and P. strobiformis, followed by P. lambertiana. The most genetically distant species was P. chiapensis. Cluster analyses did not support P. strobiformis as a distinct species from P. ayacahuite. " 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",,,,,,"10.1016/j.bse.2008.03.005",,,"","",,,,,,"7",,"Biochemical Systematics and Ecology",,"523
WOS",,,,,,"Genetic diversity; Genetic relationships; Pinus chiapensis; Pinus lambertiana; Pinus strobiformis-P. ayacahuite complex; Random amplified polymorphic DNA",,,,,,"Genetic relationships among Mexican white pines (Pinus, Pinaceae) based on RAPD markers",,"Article" "45077","123456789/35008",,"Szlachetko, D.L., Lab. Plant Taxonomy Phytogeography, Gda sk University, Al. Legion w 9, PL-80-441 Gda sk, Poland; Tamayo, R.G., Instituto de Botanica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apdo. Postal 139, 45110 Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico",,"Szlachetko, D.L.
Tamayo, R.G.",,"1996",,"Ochyrella Szlach. & Tamayo, gen. nov., is segregated from Eltroplectris Raf. as a new genus. Its most characteristic features include a short rostellum; a short subulate and soft rostellum remnant; a semi-sheath-like viscidium equalling the rostellum length; a short column foot and column part below the stigma; and the lack of clinandrium. Ochyrella, as defined here, comprises five species native to Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. Five new combinations are proposed: Ochyrella brachycentron (Szlach.) Szlach. & Tamayo, comb. nov., O. dalessandroi (Dods.) Szlach. & Tamayo, comb. nov., O. lurida (Correa) Szlach. & Tamayo, comb. nov., O. misera (Kraenzl.) Szlach. & Tamayo, comb. nov. and O. triloba (Lindl.) Szlach. & Tamayo, comb. nov.",,,,,,,,,"","",,,,,,"2",,"Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica",,"697
700",,"41",,"Scopus",,,,,,"Magnoliophyta; Ochyrella; Orchidaceae; South America; Stenorrhynchidinae; Taxonomy",,,,,,"Ochyrella (Orchidaceae, Stenorrhynchidinae), a new genus from South America",,"Article" "43526","123456789/35008",,"Bowen, S., Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 8107, Raleigh, NC 27695-8107, United States; Zapata, A.V., Department of Business, University of Guadalajara-CUCIENEGA, Ocotlán, Mexico",,"Bowen, S.
Zapata, A.V.",,"2009",,"In this paper, we use the case of tequila to examine the potential for geographical indications (GIs) to contribute to socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. GIs are place-based names (e.g., Champagne, Roquefort) that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. The GI for tequila was established by the Mexican government in 1974, making it the oldest GI, and one of the best-recognized, outside of Europe. Here, we examine the social, economic, and ecological impacts that the agave-tequila industry has had on one community in tequila's region of origin, the town of Amatiton. We show that persistent cycles of surplus and shortage of agave and changing production relations in the agave-tequila industry have led to: (1) economic insecurity among farm households; (2) increased use of chemical inputs, at the expense of more labor-intensive cultivation practices; and (3) overall declines in fertilizer application, especially during periods in which there is a surplus of agave. We argue that the negative effects of the agave-tequila industry on the local economy and environment are due to the failure of the GI for tequila to value the ways in which the terroir of tequila's region of origin have contributed to its specific properties. We conclude by using this case to discuss more generally the relationship between the protection of place-based products (known collectively as geographical indications) and social and environmental sustainability. " 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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