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Title: Effects of low concentration of endosulfan on proliferation, ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and senescence in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) splenocytes
Author: Tellez-Banuelos, M.C.
Ortiz-Lazareno, P.C.
Santerre, A.
Casas-Solis, J.
Bravo-Cuellar, A.
Zaitseva, G.
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: Endosulfan is a potent organochlorinated pesticide that is known to induce side effects in aquatic organisms, including Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). It has been previously shown that endosulfan induces oxidative stress and non-specific activation of splenic macrophages and exacerbated serum interleukin-2 synthesis in Nile tilapia. Endosulfan may promote proliferation of T cells through MAP kinase (MAPK) activated signal transductions. The ERK family of MAPKs includes ERK1 and ERK2. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) molecules are involved in many aspects of cellular survival, and are important for apoptosis or oxidative stress-induced senescence. In order to study the mechanisms by which endosulfan affects fish health, the present study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of this insecticide on proliferation, the ERK1/2 pathway, apoptosis and cell senescence in splenocytes from Nile tilapia. Lymphoproliferation was evaluated by colorimetric method using the WST-1 assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess pERK1/2, apoptosis and senescence, using Annexin V-FITC and ?-galactosidase respectively. Experimental data showed that exposure to 7 ?g mL -1 of endosulfan per se increased cellular proliferation, but decreased the lymphoproliferative response to mitogenic stimulus with PMA + ionomycin. Splenocytes exposed to endosulfan for 15-180 min showed significantly higher levels of pERK1/2 than the non-exposed control. Endosulfan mediated a decrease in etoposide-induced apoptosis and provoked cell senescence. In conclusion, exposure of immune cells to a low concentration of endosulfan deregulates their function and may facilitate the development of multiple diseases. Zapotitlán 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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