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Title: Dynamics of the components of energy intake between Spanish and Mexican preschool children: Energy density and food volume in two contexts [Dinámica de los componentes de la ingesta energética entre niños preescolares de España y México: Densidad energética y volumen alimentario en dos contextos]
Author: Capdevila, F.
Vizmanos Lamotte, B.
Escribano, J.
Closa, R.
Martinez-Lomeli, L.
Marquez-Sandoval, F.
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: Objective: To determine the differences in the dynamics of dietary energy density (ED), food volume (FV) and energy intake (EI) between two groups of healthy children, in normal conditions, from Spain and Mexico. Methods: Crossectional study which analyses the habitual diet of two healthy children groups, 1-4 years old, from Reus (Spain, n = 203) and Guadalajara (Mexico, n = 147). Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall. Anthropometric data were also obtained. We estimated Z-score of weight, height and BMI, and EI (kcal/day), ED (kcal/g), FV (g/day), EI/kg body weight (kcal/kg/day) and FV/kg body weight (g/kg/day). Results: The Spanish children consumed significantly more cereals (p < 0.05), vegetables, meat, fish and eggs than the Mexican children (p < 0.001), while the latter consumed significantly more sweets (p < 0.001). The mean EI/kg body weight was 107.7 36.2 kcal/kg/day in the children from Reus, and 102.4 38.8 kcal/kg/day in the children from Guadalajara, without significant differences. While the ED was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the Spanish sample (1.41 0.35 kcal/g) that in the Mexican one (1.19 0.37 kcal/g), we observed the contrary on FV per kilogram of weight: it was significantly (p < 0.001) greater in Mexicans (91.0 36.1 g/kg/day) than in Spanish (79.5 27.5 g/kg/day). Conclusion: In two populations with different contexts, the balance between energy intake and energy requirements is achieved in different ways, allowing energy intake per unit of weight and growth to be adequate. Future studies are needed to clarify the factors of a possible alteration of this equilibrium through time, in such a way, that it would probably contribute to the development of overweight and obesity in several environments.
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