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Title: Combinatorial gene therapy induces regression of hepatic encephalopathy
Author: Galvez-Gastelum, F.J.
Garcia-Bauelos, J.J.
Beas-Zárate, Carlos
Segura-Flores, A.
Gonzalez, H.
Chaparro-Huerta, V.
Salazar-Montes, A.
Sandoval-Rodriguez, A.S.
Bueno-Topete, M.
Lucano-Landeros, S.
Medina-Preciado, D.
Gonzalez-Garcia, I.
Armendariz-Borunda, J.
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: Capillarization of the sinusoid impedes the clearance of neurotoxic substances in liver fibrosis. These events may result in hepatic encephalopathy. Neurological and hepatic features of rats after bile duct ligation (BDL) supplemented with Manganese (BDLMn 2+) were examined. The 4-week-old BDL rats had elevated levels of ammonia and were concomitantly fed with 1 mg ml -1 of MnCl -2 in drinking water (BDL/Mn 2+). Five out of fifteen rats were killed and the serum, liver and brain tissue (striatum and substantia nigra) were recovered. Of the remaining BDL/Mn 2+-cirrhotic animals (n10), five were injected with a combination of Adenovirus-human plasminogen activator (Ad-huPA) and Adenovirus-matrix metalloproteinase-8 (Ad-MMP-8) (3 × 10 11+1.5 × 10 11 vector particles per kg), and five with 4.5 × 10 11 vector particles per kg of Adenovirus-?-galactosidase (Ad-?-Gal). This treatment was carried on for 10 days. The BDL/Mn 2+ rats displayed tremor, rigidity and gait abnormalities, which improved notably with combinatorial gene therapy, as well as motor coordination. Liver fibrosis was evidently less after treatment with Ad-huPAAd-MMP-8 (25%). In the brain (striatum), Ad-huPAAd-MMP-8 treatment rendered higher concentrations of dopamine compared with Ad-?-Gal-treated encephalopathic rats (210 and 162 ng g -1 of tissue, respectively). The BDL/Mn 2+ animals and controls treated with Ad-?-Gal showed abnormal morphology in astrocytes (gliosis) in striatum and substantia nigra, in which expressions of green fibrillar acidic protein and tyrosine hydroxylase were altered. These abnormalities decreased with Ad-huPAAd-MMP-8 treatment. Importantly, the latter animals showed an increment in sprouting of nervous fibers in substantia nigra. Combinatorial gene therapy improves neuroanatomical and neurochemical characteristics similar to human hepatic encephalopathy. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.
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