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|Title:||Characterization of Cell Wall Extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Immunological Activity|
|Abstract:||The yeast cell wall (YCW) is composed mainly of β-glucans, mannoproteins, and chitin. β-Glucans are well known immunomodulators, recognized by Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and inducing the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is implicated in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO). Here we evaluated the immunomodulating effect of the YCW extracts from three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AR5, MG, and L013) obtained from Tequila and bread-making processes by challenging intraperitoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice with YCW extract and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli. Only the extract from AR5, which had a high glucan-to-mannan ratio, exhibited an antagonistic effect upon LPS stimulation: The IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations in plasma increased slightly by 24% and 4%, respectively, and the NO level increased moderately by 200% compared with the control. When the YCW extracts had less glucan, as found for MG and L013, the LPS stimulus had more of a synergistic effect on the plasma IL-1β concentration, which increased about 175%, and on the NO level, which rose 330-470%. These results indicated that under certain conditions, YCW extracts have an immune-attenuating effect; that is, the mice liberated much less IL-1β or nearly equal amounts of TNF-α or NO compared with the LPS stimulus alone. © 2012 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.|
|Appears in Collections:||Producción científica UdeG (prueba)|
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