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dc.contributor.authorRubi-Castellanos, R.
dc.contributor.authorMartinez-Cortes, G.
dc.contributor.authorMunoz-Valle, J.F.
dc.contributor.authorGonzalez-Martin, A.
dc.contributor.authorCerda-Flores, R.M.
dc.contributor.authorAnaya-Palafox, M.
dc.contributor.authorRangel-Villalobos, H.
dc.description.abstractOver the last 500 years, admixture among Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans, principally, has come to shape the present-day gene pool of Mexicans, particularly Mestizos, who represent about 93% of the total Mexican population. In this work, we analyze the genetic data of 13 combined DNA index system-short tandem repeats (CODIS-STRs) in 1,984 unrelated Mestizos representing 10 population samples from different regions of Mexico, namely North, West, Central, and Southeast. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test demonstrated low but significant differentiation among Mestizos from different regions (FST = 0.34%; P = 0.0000). Although the spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) predicted clustering Mestizo populations into four well-delimited groups, the main differentiation was observed between Northwest when compared with Central and Southeast regions. In addition, we included analysis of individuals of Amerindian (Purepechas), European (Huelva, Spain), and African (Fang) origin. Thus, STRUCTURE analysis was performed identifying three well-differentiated ancestral populations (k = 3). STRUCTURE results and admixture estimations by means of LEADMIX software in Mestizo populations demonstrated genetic heterogeneity or asymmetric admixture throughout Mexico, displaying an increasing North-to-South gradient of Amerindian ancestry, and vice versa regarding the European component. Interestingly, this distribution of Amerindian ancestry roughly reflects pre-Hispanic Native-population density, particularly toward the Mesoamerican area. The forensic, epidemiological, and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed herein. � 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
dc.titlePre-hispanic Mesoamerican demography approximates the present-day ancestry of Mestizos throughout the territory of Mexico
dc.relation.ispartofjournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
dc.subject.keywordAdmixture; CODIS; Mestizo; Mexican; STRs; STRUCTURE
dc.contributor.affiliationRubi-Castellanos, R., Instituto de Investigaci�n en Gen�tica Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ci�nega, (CUCi�nega-UdeG), Ocotl�n, Jalisco, Mexico; Mart�nez-Cort�s, G., Instituto de Investigaci�n en Gen�tica Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ci�nega, (CUCi�nega-UdeG), Ocotl�n, Jalisco, Mexico; Mu�oz-Valle, J.F., Instituto de Investigacion en Reumatologia Y del Sistema Musculo-Esqueletico, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS-UdeG), Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; Gonz�lez-Mart�n, A., Departamento de Zoolog�a Y Antropolog�a F�sica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), 28040 Madrid, Spain; Cerda-Flores, R.M., Departamento de Gen�tica de Poblaciones Y Bioinform�tica, Centro de Investigaci�n Biom�dica del Noreste (CIBN-IMSS), Monterrey, Nuevo Le�n, Mexico; Anaya-Palafox, M., Laboratorio de Gen�tica Forense, Instituto Jalisciense de Ciencias Forenses (IJCF), Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico; Rangel-Villalobos, H., Instituto de Investigaci�n en Gen�tica Molecular, Centro Universitario de la Ci�nega, (CUCi�nega-UdeG), Ocotl�n, Jalisco, Mexico, Instituto de Investigaci�n en Gen�tica Molecular, Universidad de Guadalajara, CP 47810 Ocotl�n, Jalisco, Mexico
dc.subject.headingIndex Medicus;African Continental Ancestry Group/ge [Genetics];Analysis of Variance;Demography;European Continental Ancestry Group/ge [Genetics];Genetic Variation;Genetics, Population;Humans;Indians, North American/ge [Genetics];Likelihood Functions;Mexico;Microsatellite Repeats/ge [Genetics]
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