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Title: Polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes in indigenous Mexican population: unusual high frequency of CYP2E1*c2 allele.
Author: Gordillo-Bastidas, E.
Panduro-Cerda, Arturo
Gordillo-Bastidas, D.
Zepeda-Carrillo, E.A.
Garcia-Banuelos, J.J.
Munoz-Valle, J.F.
Bastidas-Ramirez, B.E.
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse represents the major identified etiological factor of cirrhosis in M�xico. ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 have been considered candidate genes in alcohol-related diseases. Controversial results probably due to ethnic differences, among other factors, have been reported. Mexican Mestizos (MES) derive from the combination of indigenous, Spaniard, and African genes. Huichols (HUI) constitute an indigenous group from western Mexico with no racial admixture. We determined ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and CYP2E1*c2 allele frequencies in healthy HUI and MES from western Mexico. Lipid and hepatic profile were also carried out. METHODS: One hundred and one HUI and 331 MES subjects were studied. Genotype and allele frequency were assessed through polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism after DNA isolation from peripheral leukocytes. Commercial kits for lipid and hepatic determinations were used. RESULTS: Polymorphic allele distribution in HUI was: 0%ADH1B*2, 0.5%ALDH2*2, 51.5%CYP2E1*c2; in MES: 3.4%ADH1B*2, 0%ALDH2*2, 16.1%CYP2E1*c2. Frequency of ADH1B*2 was statistically (p < 0.001) lower in HUI than MES. CYP2E1*c2 polymorphic allele was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in HUI than MES. Hepatic profile was normal in both groups. HUI showed a better lipid profile than MES independently of genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Huichols exhibited the highest CYP2E1*c2 allele frequency of the world documented up to this date; meanwhile, ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 were practically absent. This feature could be useful in the understanding of Mexican population gene composition, alcohol metabolism, and alcoholic liver disease development. However, further association studies are necessary. The heterogeneity of Mexican population was evidenced by the significantly different distribution of CYP2E1*c2 allele observed among different regions of the country. Lipid and hepatic values were not associated to genotype. This report constitutes the first study dealing with gene polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes conducted in HUI.
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