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Title: Characterization of Cell Wall Extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Immunological Activity
Author: Aguilar, B.
Solis, J.
Viveros, J.M.
Lopez, Z.
Knauth, P.
Issue Date: 2012
Abstract: The yeast cell wall (YCW) is composed mainly of ?-glucans, mannoproteins, and chitin. ?-Glucans are well known immunomodulators, recognized by Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and inducing the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) signaling pathway, which is implicated in the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and nitric oxide (NO). Here we evaluated the immunomodulating effect of the YCW extracts from three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AR5, MG, and L013) obtained from Tequila and bread-making processes by challenging intraperitoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice with YCW extract and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Escherichia coli. Only the extract from AR5, which had a high glucan-to-mannan ratio, exhibited an antagonistic effect upon LPS stimulation: The IL-1? and TNF-? concentrations in plasma increased slightly by 24% and 4%, respectively, and the NO level increased moderately by 200% compared with the control. When the YCW extracts had less glucan, as found for MG and L013, the LPS stimulus had more of a synergistic effect on the plasma IL-1? concentration, which increased about 175%, and on the NO level, which rose 330-470%. These results indicated that under certain conditions, YCW extracts have an immune-attenuating effect; that is, the mice liberated much less IL-1? or nearly equal amounts of TNF-? or NO compared with the LPS stimulus alone. � 2012 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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